I got a letter today from the bank where I had the compromised credit card. Apparently Visa notified them that some of their customers' card numbers (including me) may have been stolen when a third party vendor was hacked into, so they are sending me a new card.
Unless they are sending this as a form letter because I called in and said the card was used for a fraudulent transaction, then this definitely explains how the hell I ended up in this situation. $10 says it was the Heartland data breach. Now to just wait for my dispute forms.